Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Atractoscion: Greek, atraktos, arrow + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Ayres.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 122 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 65°N - 22°N
Eastern Pacific: Alaska to southern Baja California, Mexico and the Gulf of California.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 166 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118); max. published weight: 41.0 kg (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 56049)
Often in schools over rocky bottom and in kelp beds (Ref. 2850). Also found in the surf zone (Ref. 2850). Young in bays and along sandy beaches (Ref. 2850). Feed on fishes, squids, and crayfish (Ref. 6885). Pelagic spawners (Ref. 56049). Excellent food fish (Ref. 9118).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 56049).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9 - 22.9, mean 12.8 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00411 - 0.01535), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13; tm=4; tmax=20).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.6 [17.6, 65.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.864 [0.515, 1.500] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [19.1, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.331 [0.199, 0.532] g/100g ; Selenium = 47.4 [23.2, 88.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.5 [4.2, 42.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.457 [0.306, 0.729] mg/100g (wet weight);