Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical
Western Atlantic: southeastern Florida, USA and Bahamas to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340)
soft rays: 32 - 34. Ventral profile deeply curved in front of anal fin, tapering upward to slender caudal peduncle. Mouth very oblique (Ref. 26938). Scales ctenoid along the back posterior to dorsal fin and ventrally on head and body, otherwise cycloid, coppery with a dark band at base of anal fin; young nearly transparent, silvery over abdomen (Ref. 13442).
Occurs in clear water with coral bottom. Form aggregations in dark crevices and caves (Ref. 9710). Nocturnal (Ref. 9626). Its name probably refers to the juveniles, which are so transparent that the backbone can be seen in the living fish (Ref. 26938). Feeds on zooplankton, particularly the larval stages of invertebrates (Ref. 13442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 28.1, mean 27.4 °C (based on 656 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00722 - 0.03321), b=2.96 (2.77 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 86 [53, 137] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.746 [0.493, 1.193] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.8, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.091, 0.215] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.8 [14.7, 47.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 66.8 [21.5, 202.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [0.97, 2.08] mg/100g (wet weight);