Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 13 - 384 m (Ref. 2850), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 36°N -
Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Isla Lobos de Tierra, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Rare north of central Baja California, Mexico (Ref. 2850).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9353)
Found on bottom. Feeds mainly on other fishes. Young are pelagic and eaten by large predatory fishes such as tunas. Spine above pectoral fin probably slightly venomous.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.8 - 19.5, mean 14.5 °C (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00902 - 0.03052), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.71 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.32; tm=2-3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .