Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 32°N - 9°N
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, southern Florida in USA and Bahamas to Panama and Venezuela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 92840)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 12. Whitish with a row of five dark yellowish brown double spots on lower side of body; head and dorsal part of body with irregular yellowish brown spots of variable; caudal fin with chevron markings (Ref. 13442); body is slightly elongate; ventral fins completely united (Ref. 92840).
Found on silty open bottoms (Ref. 9710). Shares burrow with alpheid shrimp, usually in open bottom in less than 9 m depth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 534 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00454 - 0.02011), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 127 [67, 265] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.825 [0.453, 1.454] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.9, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.165 [0.085, 0.280] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.6 [13.7, 50.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 110 [33, 315] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.76 [1.10, 2.70] mg/100g (wet weight);