Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 9°N
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, southern Florida in USA and Bahamas to Panama and Venezuela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 92840)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 12. Whitish with a row of five dark yellowish brown double spots on lower side of body; head and dorsal part of body with irregular yellowish brown spots of variable; caudal fin with chevron markings (Ref. 13442); body is slightly elongate; ventral fins completely united (Ref. 92840).
Found on silty open bottoms (Ref. 9710). Shares burrow with alpheid shrimp, usually in open bottom in less than 9 m depth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 534 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00475 - 0.02204), b=3.03 (2.85 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 127 [67, 265] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.825 [0.453, 1.454] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.9, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.165 [0.085, 0.280] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.6 [13.7, 50.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 110 [33, 315] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.76 [1.10, 2.70] mg/100g (wet weight);