Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 40 - 110 m (Ref. 26938). Subtropical; 37°N - 20°N, 98°W - 75°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida and northern Gulf of Mexico in USA; south to Yucatan in Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Males have first 2 dorsal spines extremely long, reaching to tip of tail.
Found from bays and estuaries to the mid-shelf. Neither anterolateral glandular grooves nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.1 - 27.4, mean 24 °C (based on 44 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00509 - 0.02472), b=2.99 (2.80 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 275 [113, 754] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.54 [1.38, 5.02] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.7 [14.8, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 1.35 [0.51, 3.88] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.5 [9.8, 71.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 42.6 [11.9, 145.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.79, 2.23] mg/100g (wet weight);