Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 38°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Virginia, USA and the continental coast of the Gulf of Mexico to Rio Grande del Sur, Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 48.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Grayish brown above, shading to silvery below, no prominent bars. Lower jaw has single, stout, peg-like barbel with pore at tip. Scales on belly smaller than those on side (Ref. 26938).
Occurs usually in coastal waters over sandy and muddy bottoms; juveniles are abundant in the surf zone. Sometimes enters estuaries. Feeds mainly on worms and crustaceans. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.5 - 27.7, mean 24.9 °C (based on 288 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00501 - 0.01259), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm <4).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 120 [59, 243] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.46 [0.84, 2.90] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [18, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.725 [0.352, 1.495] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.6 [14.1, 77.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.1, 45.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.993 [0.639, 1.673] mg/100g (wet weight);