Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 930 m (Ref. 50550), usually 75 - 230 m (Ref. 42091). Polar; 83°N - 43°N, 117°W - 36°E (Ref. 57308)
Arctic to Northwest Atlantic and Northwest Pacific: Grand Bank and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada in western Atlantic (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Spitsbergen and Finmarken coasts in Norway eastward to White Sea, Barents Sea and Kara Sea; also Iceland and Greenland. Also Okhotsk and Bering seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4700)
Inhabits muddy bottoms at temperatures of 4.4 to -1.7 °C (Ref. 4700). Benthic, possibly bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on pelagic and benthic crustaceans and polychaetes (Ref. 4700).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Andriashev, A.P., 1986. Agonidae. p. 1265-1268. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4700)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): -0.9 - 6.7, mean 0.7 °C (based on 505 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,088).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).