Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Cantherhines: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 58047), usually 3 - 20 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and Bermuda to São Paulo, Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
soft rays: 29 - 32. Adults are brown, with or without many prominent white spots on body and head; caudal fin black with obscure curved median white bar and two indistinct white basal spots (Ref. 13442). Males are readily distinguished from females of about same size by the larger spines on caudal peduncle and by orange color of patch of setae anterior to the peduncular spines on males (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits coral reefs or rocky bottoms (Ref. 5217). Found among gorgonians. Occurs in pairs (Ref. 5521). Feeds mainly on sponges, gorgonians, and algae (Ref. 9710) but also eats hydroids and stinging coral (Ref. 13442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 28, mean 27.1 °C (based on 268 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01325 - 0.03450), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 20 [8, 81] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.778 [0.277, 2.199] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.2, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.0748 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 43.5 [15.8, 125.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.6 [14.4, 155.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [0.58, 2.63] mg/100g (wet weight);