Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Monacanthus: Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 50 m (Ref. 5217), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 10°N
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to Antilles. Reported from northern South America (Ref. 5217).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 31 - 36. A small, slender filefish (body depth about 3 in SL) with a rather long, concave facial profile. Brownish gray with scattered small black spots (Ref. 26938).
Found over sandy and rocky bottoms (Ref. 5217). Drifts among gorgonians (Ref. 9710). Feeds on algae and invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 210 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01640 - 0.04844), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72 [23, 203] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.49 [0.74, 3.20] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.3, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.067, 0.379] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.4 [5.1, 34.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.2 [5.8, 132.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [0.8, 2.8] mg/100g (wet weight);