Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 140 m (Ref. 11441). Tropical; 40°N - 40°S, 26°E - 170°W
Indo-West Pacific: east coast of Africa (without verified records from the Red Sea) to Sri Lanka and farther eastward to the Gulf of Thailand, north to Japan and south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Adults occur in the continental shelf, near rocks and coral reefs (Ref. 7300). They feed on crustaceans, small squids, and fishes (Ref. 5213). Juveniles are found in sandy bays (Ref. 2334). Marketed fresh, may be dried or salted (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.6 - 28.4, mean 27.2 °C (based on 887 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01632 - 0.02932), b=2.92 (2.87 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.68).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.1 [14.5, 68.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.48 [0.64, 3.38] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [18, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.161 [0.081, 0.316] g/100g ; Selenium = 11 [4, 28] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.9 [3.6, 279.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.578 [0.277, 1.277] mg/100g (wet weight);