Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 100 - 500 m (Ref. 51600), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: in tropical and subtropical waters to southern Hawaii near Marquesas. Eastern Pacific: coast of Peru approximately in front of Isla Huaura (Ref. 5530) and from Chile (Ref. 9068). South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4066)
High-oceanic and mesopelagic; nyctoepipelagic at the surface (Ref. 9192). Neustonic at 1-125 m at night, 600-1150 m during day (Ref. 58302). Feed at night in the western equatorial Pacific (Ref. 9192). Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 31442). Lipid content is 3.1 % in fresh body weight and wax ester is10 % in total lipids (Ref. 9197).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1986. Myctophidae. p. 282-321. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4066)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 21.1, mean 15.3 °C (based on 343 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00223 - 0.01418), b=3.10 (2.88 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .