Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Siganidae
Etymology: Siganus: Latin, siganus = a fish, rabbit fish; by the similarity of the nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 35°S
Indian Ocean: Red Sea and East Africa to the Andaman Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4407); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. Indian Ocean subspecies. S. s. laqueus greyish green with head and body covered with chocolate brown spots; in S. s. stellatus, background color is yellowish. Trailing edges of soft parts of dorsal and anal fins, perimeter of caudal fin and a saddle over the caudal peduncle are markedly paler than the rest. Silvery iris, tinted brown or green, with 10 equally spaced spots. Spines stout; pungent only in juveniles. Preopercular angle 92°-103°. Strong scales cover the cheeks. Usually midline of thorax fully scaled, but pelvic ridges sometimes without scales.
Common in coral reefs; juveniles enter weedy estuaries (Ref. 4407). Juveniles and subadults form schools, adults in pairs. Adults feed on benthic seaweeds (Ref. 9813). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Woodland, D.J., 1990. Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pac. Fish. (19):136 p. (Ref. 1419)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1240 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00894 - 0.03080), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.7 [15.8, 86.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.636 [0.293, 1.393] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.9, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.135 [0.070, 0.261] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.1 [7.7, 46.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.8 [7.0, 72.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.1 [0.5, 2.4] mg/100g (wet weight);