Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 15 - m (Ref. 12192), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 15°C - 30°C (Ref. 40948); 29°N - 20°N
Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 36.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 85009); common length : 17.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236); max. published weight: 9.0 kg (Ref. 4832); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 58486)
Inhabit rivers and lakes, also in rapid streams with rocky bottom (Ref. 41236). Grow better in a river with a rocky bottom. Travel toward headwaters at the start of the rainy season and downstream at the end of the rainy season. Omnivorous, feed on filamentous algae, chironomid larvae, water beetles and crustaceans. Spawn from March to September, over stones and gravel (Ref. 40948). Reported to reach 150 cm TL (Ref. 12192), and gain a maximum weight of 68 kg by Thomas, 1897 (Ref. 4832). Considered a long-living species (Ref. 58486).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00422 - 0.02065), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.14; tmax=10; Fec=6,400 (batch fecundity)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .