Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Esociformes
(Pikes and mudminnows) > Umbridae
Etymology: Umbra: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335). More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 6.5; dH range: 5 - ?; non-migratory; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 5°C - 24°C (Ref. 26183); 49°N - 43°N, 9°E - 31°E
Europe: Danube drainage from Vienna to delta; lower reaches of Dniestr drainage. In Appendix II of the Bern Convention (strictly protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26183); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Differs from Umbra pygmaea by the lack of dark blotch at caudal base, its body and head irregularly strewn with small dark sport, and having 33-35 scales in midlateral series (Ref. 59043).
Adults inhabit small irrigation canals and slowly flowing and stagnant waters with dense vegetation (Ref. 26183), usually in small ditches, oxbows, backwaters and shallow lakes (Ref. 59043). Territorial in shallow pools and swamps. They feed on larger crustacean plankton and invertebrate larvae (Ref. 26183). This species is under threat due to habitat destruction, irrigation works and disappearance of shallow ditches as suitable habitats, restrictions of river inundation, pressure from introduced fish species and chemical pollution (Ref. 26183).
Female guards the brood (Ref. 26183).
Povz, M., 1995. Threatened fishes of the world: Umbra krameriWalbaum, 1792 (Umbridae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 43(3):232. (Ref. 26183)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6329 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00413 - 0.02535), b=3.08 (2.86 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1; tmax=5; K=0.79; Fec=200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .