Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 8 - 30 m (Ref. 11482), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482)
Distinguished by the following characteristics: slender and laterally compressed body; large and oblique mouth; pelvic fins fused to form a disc; body is scaled from the base of the caudal fin anteriorly at least up to the pectoral-fin base (Ref. 92840).
Inhabits flat sand bottoms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 28.2, mean 26.5 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .