Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 25 m (Ref. 87125), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: Costa Rica , Panama and Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11482)
(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: fewer second dorsal and anal-fin rays than other species; a spotted head and body; distinctive head shape, when viewed dorsally, it is narrow and compressed anterior to the eyes, broadening posteriorly due to
the thick cheek muscles; males typically with a large mouth extending beyond the end
of the eye (Ref. 87125).
Occurs in reefs and rock outcrops surrounded by sand (Ref. 11482). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 129 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .