Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 25°S - 30°S
Africa: Natal, widespread from the Mkuze southwards to the Umtamvuna on Transkei border. Translocated to the Save in Zimbabwe.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 63.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52193); max. published weight: 4.6 kg (Ref. 52193)
Occurs in shoals and migrates upstream during spring and summer. Prefers warmer areas of rivers and often congregate at the inlets of small tributaries where the temperature is warmer than that of the main river. Feeds on algae, insect larvae and crabs. Spawns in fast-flowing stretches of rivers that are algae-free (Ref. 6465). Breeds in summer, migrates upstream and spawns over gravel beds. Males mature at about 10 cm FL, females at 15 cm FL (Ref. 7248, 52193).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00422 - 0.02065), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .