Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 4 - 25; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 11°N - 35°S, 85°W - 35°W
Central and South America: Costa Rica to Argentina in most rivers basins.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111518); max. published weight: 3.8 kg (Ref. 111518)
Occurs in diverse habitats from free flowing clear water streams, well up into the valleys, to slow turbid waters, water courses, irrigation and drainage ditches, and ponds on the plains (Ref. 11225). Rests in vegetation during the day and is active at night (Ref. 6858). Adults feed on fish; juveniles feed on crustacean and insect larvae (Ref. 26543), shrimps and other small invertebrates (Ref. 12225). Spawn in pits located in shallow water at a temperature of about 26°C (Ref. 205). Males guard the nests even after the eggs have hatched (Ref. 205). Reaches more than 3 kg (Mark Fitzgerald, pers. comm., 2001). Live fish are difficult to handle and potentially dangerous because of their sharp teeth, strong jaws, and slippery bodies.
Eggs are fertilized in the cupped anal fin of the female. When the eggs get sticky, they are dropped into a pit which will be guarded by the male even until after the eggs have hatched (Ref. 205).
Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection du Patrimoine Naturel Volume 22, MNHN, Paris & INRA, Paris. 429 p. (Ref. 12225)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00743 - 0.01069), b=3.12 (3.07 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 113 [34, 266] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.69, 2.10] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.1, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.26 [0.12, 0.58] g/100g ; Selenium = 72.4 [31.0, 171.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.7 [25.7, 171.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.35 [0.95, 1.95] mg/100g (wet weight);