Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: ? - 7.0; dH range: 10 - 15. Subtropical; 18°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060)
Asia: Eastern Asia and Taiwan (Ref. 41299); Russia (Ref. 53210). Introduced elsewhere. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108468); common length : 5.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in shallow ponds and marshes of plains, and adjacent irrigation canals (Ref. 41299).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Female lays eggs inside mussels where they are fertilized by the male. Young remain in the bivalve until they can swim (Ref. 43281).
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition I. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp v-866. (Ref. 41299)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 6094)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00901 - 0.01532), b=3.12 (3.07 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.82-2.15; Fec assumed < 100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .