Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 2 - m (Ref. 7335), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 20°C - 39°C (Ref. 35127); 27°N - 11°N, 98°W - 80°W (Ref. 55201)
Central America: Atlantic drainages from Mexico to Nicaragua.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.7, range 10 - 19 cm
Max length : 39.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabit freshwater marshes and mangrove swamps. Adults prefer coastal lagoons and rivers and will tolerate marine conditions. Feed on small fishes and macro-invertebrates (Ref. 7335). Spawn on the bottom in both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 35127).
Max. 600 eggs.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01891 - 0.03658), b=3.04 (2.95 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.20; tmax=7; Fec=2,085-6,615).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .