Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Clariidae
Etymology: Clarias: Greek, chlaros = lively, in reference to the ability of the fish to live for a long time out of water.
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - ? m (Ref. 9987). Tropical; 34°N - 4°N
Asia: Thailand to Viet Nam. Introduced to China, Malaysia, Guam and the Philippines.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 9987)
(total): 0. Distinguished from Southeast Asian congeners by an extremely short and rounded occipital process and by a very high dorsal fin. The combination of these characters are diagnostic for the species (Ref. 33566). Occipital process wide, broadly curved, with length 3-5 times in its width; distance between dorsal and occipital process 5-7 times in distance from tip of snout to end of occipital process (Ref. 43281).
Lives in lowland wetlands and rivers (Ref. 57235). Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Occurs in shallow, open water and is capable of lying buried in mud for lengthy period if ponds and lakes evaporate during dry seasons (Ref. 9987). Can move out of the water using its extended fins (Ref. 9987). Found in medium to large-sized rivers, stagnant water bodies including sluggish flowing canals and flooded fields of the Mekong (Ref. 12975). Spawns in small streams (Ref. 9987). Feeds on aquatic insects, young shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 6459). In Thailand, it was thought wrongly as female of Clarias batrachus (Ref 2686). Important foodfish and in pond cultures (Ref. 57235). Marketed live, fresh and frozen; consumed fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Cultivated on a small scale but attempts to farm it are increasing (Ref. 9987).
Eggs are attached to the roots of plants. Male takes charge of these eggs until they are hatched out.
Teugels, G.G., R.C. Diego, L. Pouyaud and M. Legendre, 1999. Redescription of Clarias macrocephalus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) from South-East Asia. Cybium 23(3):285-295. (Ref. 33566)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00446 - 0.01623), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1; Fec=800-14,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52 [18, 217] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.921 [0.488, 1.687] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [15.2, 17.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.266 [0.092, 0.773] g/100g ; Selenium = 148 [46, 525] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.5 [6.5, 86.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.778 [0.460, 1.365] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.