Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 24°S - 33°S
Africa: originally endemic to the Orange-Vaal River system, South Africa. Has been introduced into the Gouritz River, South Cape and the Olifants River, Limpopo River system where it is now established.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 7.8 kg (Ref. 7248); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 6465)
Occurs in impoundments and rivers. Prefers clear-flowing waters over sandy or rocky substrates. An omnivorous bottom feeder. Diet includes water fleas, snails, plankton, small mussels, insects, small fish, algae and detritus. Breeds in spring through to midsummer after the first substantial rains of the season. Migrates upstream to spawn over suitable gravel beds (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breeds in flowing water therefore must ascend the rivers to spawn in gravel beds. Eggs are laid in a shallow saucer-like nest which is constructed in the gravel by a female (or perhaps male) using the snout and caudal fin. Eggs are covered with gravel after fertilization. A 45 cm female carries 30, 000 eggs.
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00422 - 0.02065), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.42 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13-0.27; tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 158 [76, 258] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.1 [1.3, 3.0] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.6, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.515 [0.280, 0.936] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.4 [10.6, 60.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 31.9 [12.7, 79.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.4 [1.0, 1.9] mg/100g (wet weight);