Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Subtropical; 25°S - 45°S, 113°E - 159°E (Ref. 56257)
Indo-West Pacific: Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
soft rays: 26 - 32. Ventral flap moderately large with minute, indistinct ventral fin rudiment. Caudal fin rounded, fan-like in adults. Males with distinct blue lines, females brownish with pale spotting. Small juveniles green with white longitudinal band.
Primarily found in estuaries, schooling over seagrass beds and in Sargassum seaweed areas (Ref. 9002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kuiter, R.H., 1993. Coastal fishes of south-eastern Australia. University of Hawaii Press. Honolulu, Hawaii. 437 p. (Ref. 9002)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.3 - 21, mean 17.5 °C (based on 118 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00939 - 0.04240), b=2.93 (2.76 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 222 [68, 608] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.23 [1.13, 4.71] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [14.8, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.626 [0.236, 1.616] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.6 [8.9, 59.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.8 [3.4, 48.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.46 [0.82, 2.59] mg/100g (wet weight);