Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Whitley.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 36 m (Ref. 33065). Subtropical
Southwest Pacific: Eastern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33065)
soft rays: 24 - 30;
Vertebrae: 19. Body width 2.0-2.5 in head length; body depth 1.9-3.1 in SL; head length 2.8-3.3 in SL; snout length 3.6-4.9 in SL; eye diameter 2.7-4.5 in head length (Ref. 33065). Adult caudal fin with moderately long filaments on upper and middle rays (Ref. 9002). Pelvic fin rudiment movable, small; pelvic flap moderately extendable (Ref. 9002). Pale grey or yellow to brown with variable dark markings (Ref. 9002).
Found in weedy areas, usually in harbors (Ref. 9002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kuiter, R.H., 1993. Coastal fishes of south-eastern Australia. University of Hawaii Press. Honolulu, Hawaii. 437 p. (Ref. 9002)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.4, mean 27.3 °C (based on 176 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .