Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Loricariidae
(Armored catfishes) > Hypostominae
Etymology: Pterygoplichthys: Greek, pterygion, diminutive of pteryx = wing, fin + Greek, hoplon = weapon + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Madeira River basin. Introduced to countries outside its native range.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56962)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Typically from floodplain lakes, swamps and borrow pits, in poorly-oxygenated waters and must rely on air breathing for long periods of time. Has a specialized (enlarged) stomach which appear to function as accessory respiratory organs (Ref. 58517).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea and J.D. Williams, 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. ix, 386 p. + 1 CD. (Ref. 52299)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 56962)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01537 - 0.04300), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Tmax >3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 113 [59, 201] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.77, 1.88] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.2 [15.1, 17.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.169 [0.082, 0.356] g/100g ; Selenium = 85 [40, 213] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.1 [6.0, 36.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.66 [1.15, 2.39] mg/100g (wet weight);