Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 189), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 23°N - 7°N, 90°W - 60°W (Ref. 189)
Western Central Atlantic: Cuba and Jamaica to at least Puerto Rico, if not throughout Lesser Antilles; Yucatan (Mexico) to Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad, but apparently not further south.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80009); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 17 - 22. Snout moderate, a little over 1/2 eye diameter; maxilla moderate, tip sharply pointed, reaching to or a little beyond hind border of pre-operculum; gill cover canals of walkeri-type. Anal fin fairly short, its origin before midpoint of dorsal fin base. Anus nearer to pelvic fin tips than to anal fin origin. A narrow silver stripe along flank about eye diameter (Ref. 189).
A schooling species occurring in coastal waters. Enters saline lagoons, and, if identified properly, then also in freshwater (e.g. the middle and upper flights of the Gatun Locks, Canal Zone). Feeds on plankton (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.8 - 28.3, mean 27.7 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00268 - 0.00815), b=3.16 (3.01 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .