Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 80 - 250 m (Ref. 5222). Deep-water; 36°N - 18°S, 117°E - 147°W (Ref. 5222)
Pacific Ocean: southern Japan, Taiwan, Guam, Philippines, South China Sea, Samoa, and Tahiti in French Polynesia. Reported from Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12690).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
soft rays: 9. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: body depth 2.0-2.4 in SL; body width 2.3-2.6 in depth; caudal peduncle depth equal to or greater than length; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; dorsal head profile straight or slightly concave to above eye, nape markedly convex; flat interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, ventral serrae slightly enlarged, lower edge irregular but hidden by skin; subopercle and interopercle finely serrate; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum; maxilla naked, reaching vertical at rear edge of eye, prominent knob on ventral rear corner; ctenoid body scales, without auxiliaries (Ref. 089707).
A rare species found in deep waters, a specimen was caught at 250 m from Tahiti, French Polynesia. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 089707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.3 - 26.5, mean 21.3 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00885 - 0.02590), b=3.02 (2.88 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.4 [16.3, 96.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.432 [0.157, 0.900] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.6, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.385 [0.180, 0.831] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.5 [8.7, 75.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.67 [1.77, 39.73] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.364 [0.199, 0.678] mg/100g (wet weight);