Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 120 m (Ref. 92840), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Costa Rica. Also known off Peru (Ref. 30432).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 92840)
Distinguished by the following characteristics: laterally compressed head and body; large mouth and very oblique; completely scaled body with ctenoid scales; first dorsal with VII spines; pelvic fins fused forming a disc; caudal fin lanceolate (Ref. 92840).
Inhabits muddy bottoms at depths ranging from 10-120 meters (Ref. 92840).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.9 - 26.7, mean 20.6 °C (based on 55 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .