Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: Bahía de La Paz, southern Baja California, Mexico. Possibly young of some other species (Ref. 35766).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 6902)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout white. Mouth nearly straight. Rostral ridges confluent, very narrow, with a small and short groove at base and with spines. Entire upper surface rough (Ref. 6902).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Size is based on original stuffed specimen, now in British Museum (Ref. 6902).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and H. Espinosa Perez, 1996. Listados faunísticos de México. VII. Catálogo sistemático de las rayas y especies afines de México. (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes: Batoideiomorpha). Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico. 75 p. (Ref. 28767)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00149 - 0.00929), b=3.09 (2.87 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .