Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 28 - 79 m (Ref. 33065). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and northern Australia (excluding the northeastern region), north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33065)
Inhabits mud or sand bottoms of trawling grounds (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1997. Review of the monacanthid fish genus Paramonacanthus, with descriptions of three new species. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 54:1-57. (Ref. 33065)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 28.4, mean 27.4 °C (based on 437 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .