Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Pachymetopon: Greek, pachys = fat + Greek, metopon = brow (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical
Western Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique and Madagascar to Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Found near rocks in coastal waters. Feeds on ascideans, crustaceans, and algae. Good food fish but not sufficiently abundant to be of commercial significance. Sold fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.6 - 26.1, mean 24.3 °C (based on 20 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01072 - 0.04464), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 53.5 [27.5, 115.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.953 [0.552, 1.760] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.3, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.309 [0.190, 0.525] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.5 [14.5, 59.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.15 [1.95, 23.85] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.66 [0.41, 1.05] mg/100g (wet weight);