Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Gerres: Latin, gerres = a kind of anchovies; cited by Plinius.
More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 9002). Subtropical
Indo-West Pacific: Australia, but may occur in southern New Guinea; also reported in New Caledonia..
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 9 - 10;
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by having the following characters: body oval, greatly compressed and with moderately deep caudal peduncle; moderate-sized and weakly attached scales covering the body and extended over the head; lateral line gradually curved, following contour of back, extending onto caudal fin with several scales; small mouth but greatly protractile; numerous villiform teeth on jaws; dorsal fin spines elevated anteriorly, notched over remaining spines, followed by longer, sub-equal rays; anal fin short-based, similar to and opposite posterior part of the dorsal fin; caudal fin deeply forked; pectoral fins pointed with long upper rays, reaching the anal fin. Colour of adults shiny with dark-tipped dorsal fin; juveniles olive above with some indistinct dark blotching (Ref. 9002).
Found in estuaries, harbors, to fairly deep water along the shores (Ref. 30392); strongly affected by freshwater; and reported to congregate in schools (Ref. 58476).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Iwatsuki, Y., S. Kimura and T. Yoshino, 2007. A review of the Gerres subfasciatus complex from the Indo-west Pacific, with three new species (Perciformes: Gerridae). Ichthyol. Res. 54(2):168-185. (Ref. 58476)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.6 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 494 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00861 - 0.02542), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 215 [99, 466] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.15 [1.08, 4.13] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.1, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.85 [0.37, 2.02] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.2 [12.2, 64.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.6 [3.7, 48.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.82, 2.15] mg/100g (wet weight);