Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range - 5 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 20°S - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesan Islands, north to the Philippines and the South China Sea, south to Tonga and tropical Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
School in shallow coastal waters; enter lagoons, estuaries, and rivers to feed (Ref. 9812). Feed on plant detritus, microalgae, minute benthic organisms, and organic matter in sand and mud; juveniles feed on planktonic algae (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Also caught with stakenets and is marketed fresh (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 26.7, mean 25.4 °C (based on 212 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00925 - 0.01426), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.14 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 51.5 [18.7, 134.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.4 [0.7, 3.1] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.7, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.509 [0.206, 1.345] g/100g ; Selenium = 16 [6, 39] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47 [8, 254] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.62 [0.90, 3.07] mg/100g (wet weight);