Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 37°S, 23°E - 144°W (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa, including the Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius eastward to Hong Kong, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), northern and eastern coasts of Australia and further east to Samoa and Tahiti.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.0, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 19 - 21. Diagnosis: Body slender, elongate, rather round in cross-section, belly rounded, with 2-6 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes; maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or only just beyond front border of pre-operculum; hind border of pre-operculum convex, rounded; lower gillrakers 20-28; isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward to hind border of branchial membrane; pelvic fin tips not reaching to below dorsal fin origin; anal fin short, with usually 3 unbranched and 16-18 branched finrays, its origin below centre of dorsal fin base; body light transparent fleshy brown, with a silver stripe down flank; no dark pigment lines on back between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 189). Other species with such a short maxilla are Stolephorus advenus, with 7 pre-pelvic scutes, and S. pacificus, with 35-38 gillrakers; maxilla to or almost to hind border of pre-operculum in other Stolephorus species (Ref. 189).
A schooling species occurring in coastal waters and which appears to enter at least the estuarine parts of rivers and to tolerate brackish water. Cpastal pelagic (Ref. 68964). Feeds most likely on zooplankton, but more data needed. In Manila Bay, the Philippines, it migrates out into deeper and more saline water to spawn, returning inshore immediately thereafter. Processed into nuoc-man (fish pickle) in Indo-China (Ref. 4929). Used as bait in the tuna fishery in the South Pacific, although said to be fragile. Also Ref. 58652.
In Manila Bay, migrates out into deeper and more saline water to breed (at about 9 cm SL and above), returning immediately thereafter.
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.7, mean 27.9 °C (based on 362 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00444 - 0.00620), b=3.14 (3.09 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.71-1.42).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 571 [212, 1,597] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.7 [1.3, 5.5] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.7, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.657 [0.245, 1.765] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.6 [19.5, 159.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.3 [5.6, 137.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.96 [1.67, 5.02] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.