Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Hypoclinemus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, klinein = to incline.
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Amazon basin (there are records throughout the basin, except upper portion of Tapajós and Xingu rivers), Orinoco basin (upper tributaries: Guaviare, Casicare, Voutuari), and throughout the Essequibo River basin.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111115); max. published weight: 288.65 g (Ref. 111115)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ramos, R.T.C., 2003. Achiridae (American soles). p. 666-669. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00919 - 0.02998), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).