Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 35 m (Ref. 33065). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: known only from the Persian Gulf.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33065)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 27 - 30;
Vertebrae: 19. Scales on midside of body each with single relatively large, prominently branched spinule (except in some slender males); dorsal profile of snout convex to slightly concave, without prominent hump just anterior to eye; second uppermost caudal fin ray of male elongate and filamentous; dark blotch on side of body below anterior half of soft dorsal fin usually bisected by narrow longitudinal pale line.
Taken by otter trawling to depths of 35 m and also by beach seine and chemical ichthyocides at shallow waters (Ref. 33065).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1997. Review of the monacanthid fish genus Paramonacanthus, with descriptions of three new species. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 54:1-57. (Ref. 33065)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 28.8, mean 27.1 °C (based on 145 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .