Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Paramonacanthus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, monos = one + Greek, akantha ) thorn (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 78 m (Ref. 33065), usually 20 - 78 m (Ref. 33065). Tropical
Southwest Pacific: east coast of Australia from Lizard Island in north Queensland to Sydney Harbor in New South Wales. In addition, two specimens have been collected at the Chesterfield Reefs, about 900 km off the coast.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33065)
soft rays: 26 - 28;
Vertebrae: 19. Dorsal profile of snout moderately to slightly convex in male, usually straight in female, without prominent hump just before nostrils; soft dorsal fin of male with second ray elongate and filamentous; no elongate rays in caudal fin; narrow whitish lines often along body; dark stripe on outer margin of anal fin in male, width equal to or greater than width of pupil.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hutchins, J.B., 1997. Review of the monacanthid fish genus Paramonacanthus, with descriptions of three new species. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 54:1-57. (Ref. 33065)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24 - 27.7, mean 25.6 °C (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.01034 - 0.04421), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .