Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Scolopsis: Greek, skolex = worm + Greek, opsis = appearance (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 25 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 36°S, 66°E - 172°W (Ref. 3810)
Indo-West Pacific: Maldives (Ref. 11303) and the Laccadive Islands to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: head scales reaching to or just in front of anterior nostrils; lateral line scales 43-47 (usually 45-46); pectoral fin rays 16-18 (usually 17); snout length less than eye diameter; greatest body depth 2.5-3.0 in SL. Colour dark grey on head and back with diagonal black-edged white band separating dark area from the rest of the mainly whitish body; white blotch below posterior dorsal fin; 3 yellow stripes on upper head; juveniles with alternating black and yellow stripes on the upper half and whitish below, Batesian mimic of the poison-fanged blenny Meiacanthus grammistes (Ref. 90102).
Common on coral reefs. Adults occur on most reef habitats, usually in pairs, and juveniles inshore or in lagoons or rubble zones (Ref. 48635). Occurs singly or in small aggregations. Feeds on small fishes and benthic invertebrates. A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 9785). Juvenile mimics poison-danged blenny Miacanthus grammistes, Batesian mimic (Ref. 90102). Caught mainly by handline and live specimens captured by hand net for the aquarium export trade; no major fishery exists (Ref. 9785). It is parasitised by the monogenean Anoplodiscus hutsonae on the pectoral fins and body surface (Ref. 124057).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2688 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00887 - 0.02248), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 73.2 [43.6, 146.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.713 [0.387, 1.251] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.158 [0.092, 0.269] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.5 [19.7, 63.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64.5 [17.1, 180.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.82, 1.96] mg/100g (wet weight);