Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Lacantuniidae
Etymology: Lacantunia: Named for Rio Lacantún in Chiapas, the tributary river of Rio Usumacinta inhabited by the new catfish; enigmatica: From the Latin name 'enigmatica' = baffling or inexplicable, for the unexpected discovery, obscure relationships and origin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; depth range - 18 m (Ref. 54757), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
North America: Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54757); 40.6 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. This species is distinguished from all other siluriforms by the following uniquely derived and anatomically complex characteristics: fifth infraorbital bone relatively wide and thick-walled, boomerang-shaped and anteriorly convex, and remote from a markedly prominent sphenotic process; the lateral margin of skull thickened along frontal bone and adjacent parts of lateral ethmoid and sphenotic bones at origins of much enlarged adductor mandibulae and levator arcus palatini muscles, otherwise the skull roof medial to muscle origins severely constricted, flat, lacking crests and fossae; a pair of cone-shaped "pseudo-pharyngobranchial" bones at anterior tips of enlarged accessory cartilages medial to first and second epibranchials; a hypertrophied, axe-shaped uncinate process on third epibranchial; gas bladder with paired spherical, unencapsulated diverticulae protruding from anterodorsal wall (Ref. 54757).
Inhabits deep river channels and pools with rocks and strong eddy currents. sometimes taken in stream mouths; collected in both high and low water seasons, and generally during the night. Food include fishes, crabs, prawns, and large and tough seeds (Ref. 54757).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rodiles-Hernández, R., D.A. Hendrickson, J.G. Lundberg and J.M. Humphries, 2005. Lacantunia enigmatica (Teleostei: Siluriformes) a new and phylogenetically puzzling freshwater fish from Mesoamerica. Zootaxa 1000:1-24. (Ref. 54757)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .