Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335); heteroptera: Name refers to the obvious difference in size, shape and area of the two dorsal fins.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 164 m (Ref. 74686), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 49.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 74686)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species has no thorns nor enlarged denticles on the mean dorsal line. The dermal denticles has 4 keels extending posteriorly, its widest base, approximately twice its length. Dorsal fins are very different in size, shape and area, with their base about half their height. Nasal lobes are simple and similar in length; the first and last are spatula-like in shape; the central part irregularly quadrangular. its edge with several lobes. General body color is dark brown at the dorsal surface, ocelli absent, but with 2 distinct round black spots on the upper edge of the pectoral fins and with irregular, scattered whitish spots. Each side of jaws with 8 triangular, non-serrated, and straight teeth, the upper with 2 functional series, the lower with only one (Ref. 74686).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Castro-Aguirre, J.L., H.S. Espinosa Pérez and L. Huidobro Campos, 2006. Dos nuevas especies del género Squatina (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae) del Golfo de México. Rev. Biol. Trop. (Int. J. Trop. Biol.)  54 (3):1031-1040. (Ref. 74686)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00282 - 0.01947), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .