Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cobitidae
Etymology: Cobitis: Greek, kobitis, -idos = a kind of sardine; also related with the voice Greek, kobios, Latin gobius = gudgeon (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.7; dH range: 10 - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 14°C - 18°C (Ref. 1672); 62°N - 36°N, 7°W - 40°E
Europe and Asia: Atlantic drainages from Loire northward; Baltic basin south of 61°N; upper olga and Ural drainages; northern Black Sea basin (except Danube). Ancient records from Ardour and Garonne drainages in France require confirmation (Ref. 59043).
In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna) (Ref. 9696).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.3, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 13.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441); 9.5 cm SL (female); common length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 5;
Vertebrae: 40 - 42. Caudal fin with 15-16 rays (Ref. 2196). Single small spot on upper caudal base. Pigmentation (Gambetta's longitudinal zone of pigmentation): zones Z1-Z4 usually well differentiated, extending backward to caudal peduncle; height of blotches of zone Z4 usually less than 2 times in their length; if more than 2 times, then height equal to or greater than horizontal eye diameter. One lamina circularis (Ref. 59043).
Adults occur in slow-flowing and still waters with fine sandy substrate (Ref. 9696). They occur in the Baltic Sea at salinities of up to 5 ppt (Ref. 59043). Filter sand for food particles (Ref. 36876). Nocturnal, stays hidden under rocks or buried in the sand or mud during the day (Ref. 30578). Oviparous, with distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Spawn in spring; scatters eggs into mats of plant material (Ref. 36876). Eggs are found attached to gravel and weed in shallow, flowing water (Ref. 41678). Larvae hide under vegetation and in debris until beginning of exogenous feeding (Ref. 59043).
Start of courtship is observed when both male and female swim excitedly then progresses to a chase done by the male. When movements become synchronised, the male entwines itself around the female's body, squeezing it and causing egg spawning (Ref. 58425).
Triploid females can occur; they produce triploid eggs which can develop without fertilization, but need contact with sperm to start development (gynogenesis) (Ref. 36876). Also Ref. 9953.
Vostradovsky, J., 1973. Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. 252 p. (Ref. 9696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00290 - 0.00790), b=3.10 (2.96 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-2; tmax=8; K=0.29-0.59; Fec=100-1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .