Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urolophidae
Etymology: Urolophus: Greek, oura = tail + Greek, lophos = crest (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Yearsley & Last.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 9 - 79 m (Ref. 75595). Subtropical; 27°S - 37°S, 150°E - 153°E (Ref. 75595)
Southwest Pacific: New South Wales, Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 30.9 cm
Max length : 43.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75595); 52.1 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This medium-sized species which lacks broad lobes on posterolateral border of nostrils, has the following set of characters: disc subcircular to weakly rhomboidal, width less than 62% TL; internasal flap bell-shaped; tail with well-developed lateral cutaneous folds; stinging spine long, 12-15% TL; dorsal fin low but prominent, free-rear tip over spine origin; total vertebrae 156-170; pre-spine vertebrae 86-95; dorsal surface of disc greenish, paler laterally; usually with dark suborbital blotch and V-shaped interorbital bar (Ref. 75595).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Yearsley, G.K. and P.R. Last, 2006. Urolophus kapalensis sp. nov., a new stingree (Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) off eastern Australia. Zootaxa (1176):41-52. (Ref. 75595)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 22.3, mean 20.5 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.9 [4.4, 224.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.844 [0.158, 3.456] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [17.8, 22.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.261 [0.092, 0.700] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.6 [3.8, 69.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.3 [5.3, 115.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.823 [0.207, 3.326] mg/100g (wet weight);