Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 250 - 300 m (Ref. 28016), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Western Pacific: southern Japan to the South China Sea except Ryukyu Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2272)
(total): 4 - 6;
soft rays: 13 - 15;
Vertebrae: 26. Lower edge of preopercle with 3 spines, very rarely to be more. Labial fimbriae simple and poorly developed. Posterior nostril slitlike. Dorsoposterior margin of pectoral fin slightly concave; pectoral and caudal fins pale yellow in fresh specimens. Fifth proximal anal pterygiophore (the first to follow a complete haemal spine) usually inserts between the haemal spines of 13th and 14th vertebrae (Ref. 11439).
Found near shore, down to 260 m, on sand and sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Spend a large part of their time buried in the mud or sand with only their eyes and a portion of the mouth protruding (Ref. 4716). Cleithral spine with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.8 - 14.9, mean 12.4 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00176 - 0.01132), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .