Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Schultz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 5213), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 29°N - 34°S, 28°E - 157°W (Ref. 5222)
Indo-West Pacific: Natal, South Africa to the central Pacific. Not known from the Red Sea nor Persian Gulf.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
soft rays: 8. A single large black blotch along middle of dorsal fin base (Ref. 37816), which can be turned off (Ref. 48635); further characterized by head, body and fins having numerous close-set polygon shaped dark brown spots; broad zone along side of body with ctenoid scales, cycloid scales elsewhere; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.9-3.4 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.2-2.4 in SL; flat or slightly concave interorbital area; rounded preopercle, serrae mostly covered by skin; straight or slightly convex upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye; 3-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw, inner teeth about twice as long as outer ones (Ref. 89707).
Occur in outer reef flats and shallow lagoon (Ref. 37816). Reported to be taken in a trawl, thus presumably caught somewhat deeper than 7 m. Also reported to occur in reefs at a depth of about 30 m (Ref. 5213). Because of its small size and apparent rarity, it is of little or no commercial importance. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2734 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00558 - 0.02364), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 36.6 [19.3, 81.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.527 [0.292, 1.059] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.0, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.134 [0.088, 0.212] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.3 [18.9, 56.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 245 [69, 857] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.44 [0.91, 2.16] mg/100g (wet weight);