Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Albuliformes
(Bonefishes) > Albulidae
(Bonefishes) > Albulinae
Etymology: Albula: Latin, albus = white (Ref. 45335). More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California, Mexico to at least San Pablo, Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84196)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9. Distinguished from A. gilberti by diagnostic nucleotide substitutions at 17 different sites in the 544 bp cytb gene segment. In A. esuncula, the pelvic-fin tip does not surpass the anterior edge of the anus whereas it may reach the posterior edge in A. gilberti. In A. esuncula, the number of pelvic-fin rays is always 10 whereas it varies from 9 to 12 in A. gilberti. Lateral-line scale counts and numbers of rakers on the first gill arch are lower in A. esuncula (68–71 vs. 68–73 and 3–8 vs. 4–10, respectively). Since we examined only four or nine specimens of A. esuncula, according to the characteristic, the diagnostic value of the meristic differences between both species and the position of the pelvic-fin tip should not be considered validated yet and be used with caution (Ref. 88068).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawning occurs in open waters. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 205).
Pfeiler, E., B.G. Bitler, R. Ulloa, A.M. van der Heiden and P.A. Hastings, 2008. Molecular identification of the bonefish Albula esuncula (Albuliformes: Albulidae) from the tropical eastern Pacific, with comments on distribution and morphology. Copeia 2008(4):763-770. (Ref. 84196)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5007 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00605 - 0.02387), b=3.03 (2.85 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .