Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
The species has been synonymized with Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster, 1801) for a long time (e.g., Ref. 4787, Ref. 5222).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 89707), usually 0 - 15 m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 12°N - 39°S, 40°E - 100°E (Ref. 89707)
Indian Ocean: From East coast of Africa (Kenay to South Africa) to Sumatra; Comoros Is., Mascarene Is., Maldives, Sri Lanka, Chagos I.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 9. Characterized by red color grading to dark brown on posterior part of the body; posterior edge of operculum with prominent brown "ear" spot; body scales ctenoid, including abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.2 in head length (Ref. 90102); interorbital area convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, lower edge fleshy; subopercle and interopercle usually smooth; maxilla reaching well past eye (Ref. 089707).
Common throughout its range, the species inhabits coral-rich areas. It feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 89707). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Craig, M.T., YJ. Sadovy de Mitcheson and P.C. Heemstra, 2011. Groupers of the world: a field and market guide. North America: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group. 356 p. (Ref. 89707)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.1 - 29.2, mean 27.7 °C (based on 294 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00595 - 0.02663), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.5 [35.0, 105.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.695 [0.381, 1.189] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.4, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.182 [0.110, 0.293] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.5 [19.9, 60.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 185 [67, 555] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.886 [0.625, 1.483] mg/100g (wet weight);