Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 104 m (Ref. 58302), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 89972). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 25°S
Indian Ocean: East Africa and the Mascarene Islands (Ref. 9768). Pacific Ocean: north to southern Japan, south to the Coral Sea, and east to French Polynesia; also from the Hawaiian Islands. Common in oceanic islands of the Pacific (Ref. 9768). The exact range is uncertain because of the confusion of this species with Sphyraena acutipinnis and Sphyraena novaehollandiae.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 4887)
Inhabits coral reefs or bays (Ref. 9768). Usually seen by day in large schools (Ref. 9768). Feeds on small poissons (Ref. 89972). Mainly nocturnal (Ref. 4887). Also caught with set nets (Ref. 9768). Minimum depth from Ref. 089972.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 566 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00333 - 0.01504), b=2.92 (2.75 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.3 [5.9, 34.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.429 [0.196, 1.609] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.1 [19.3, 22.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.070, 0.345] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [6.9, 45.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.5 [4.7, 145.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.414 [0.244, 0.764] mg/100g (wet weight);