Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Canthigasterinae
Etymology: Canthigaster: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, gaster = stomach (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 350 m (Ref. 11441), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4919) and east to Hawaii, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia (Ref. 3132). Recorded in Kermadec Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Body with 2 longitudinal dark bands that join in front of gill slit, lower band faint or absent; small dark spots ventrally; caudal fin with dark stripes; dark blotch at caudal base (Ref. 4919).
Inhabits rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). A deep water species known from trawls, rarely seen by diving and occasionally visits deep sandy slopes where upwellings occur (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M. and P.C. Heemstra, 1986. Tetraodontidae. p. 894-903. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4919)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 27.8, mean 23.7 °C (based on 784 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02818 (0.01196 - 0.06644), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 89.9 [35.0, 200.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.811 [0.516, 1.596] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.3, 20.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.067, 0.247] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.6 [15.5, 66.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.2 [13.2, 153.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.37 [0.88, 2.14] mg/100g (wet weight);