Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Gasterosteoidei
(Sticklebacks) > Gasterosteidae
(Sticklebacks and tubesnouts)
Etymology: Pungitius: Name meaning one that pricks; modestus: Named for its moderate behaviour where adults do not fight each other except during the reproductive season..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124673)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 7 - 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII-IX, 9-11; pectoral-fin rays 10; small unconnected lateral plates 30-32, running from just behind the dorsal end of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle; caudal peduncle with keel; dorsal-fin spine inclining atlernately to left and right of the mid-line; short spines on dorsal, 3.6% SL (2.7-4.9), anal 5.0% SL (4.1-6.0) and pelvic 5.0% SL (4.1-6.0) ; short base of spiny dorsal fin 28.7% SL (26.5-29.8); the first dorsal-fin spine is above slightly behind the pectoral-fin base; anal spine below the first (1st-3rd) dorsal-fin ray; ascending process of the pelvis is relatively developed and extending dorsally tot eh level of the dorsal-most actinost; antero-ventral process of ectocoracoid present, the left and right articulating with each other at the anterior end; membranes of dorsal-fin spines are colored dark brown with many pigments (Ref. 124673).
Occurs in small streams and ponds that are refreshed by abiundant cold spring water from the bottom with temperatures ca. 16°C year-round. This fish tends to hide in water grasses and usually remains still, suspended just above the bottom. The adults feed mainly on amphipods (e.g. Jesogammarus jesoensis) that are extremely abundant in the type locality. The larvae, on the other hand, feed on tubificids, while 30-day old juveniles on chrironomids and copepods. Breeding season peaks in May, with courtship behavior occurring at night, but may also be observed in the daytime. Reported observation stated that usually, females spawn at night between 21:00 and dawn (Ref. 124673).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Matsumoto, T., K. Matsuura and N. Hanzawa, 2021. A new species of nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius modestus (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteidae), from northern Honshu, Japan. Zootaxa 5005(1):1-20. (Ref. 124673)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00182 - 0.01048), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).