Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Notacanthiformes
(Halosaurs and deep-sea spiny eels) > Halosauridae
Etymology: Halosauropsis: Greek, als, alis = salt + Greek, sauros = lizard + Greek, opsis = appearance (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 1100 - 3300 m (Ref. 4448), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 50°N - 47°S
Eastern Atlantic: Ireland to Mauritania and South Africa. Western Atlantic: Canada to 25°N, and off southern Brazil. Western Pacific: Australia (Ref. 7300), New Zealand and Japan (Ref. 37335). Also known from Western Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4448)
(total): 11-13. Body greyish-black to bluish black in color; top of head, gill isthmus and branchiostegal membranes black (Ref. 3974). Deeply pigmented sheath of lateral line. Absence of scales on the top of the head and presence of scales on the opercular bone (Ref. 37108).
Found on the lower slope, continental rise and upper abyss, primarily between 4° and 2°C isotherms. Feeds on polychaetes, crustaceans, echinoderms and echiurids. Hovers above or rests on bottom. Long slender pectorals are commonly held erect pointing upward and forward, these may serve a sensory function (Ref. 6727).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1990. Halosauridae. p. 126-132. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4448)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.3 - 5, mean 3.3 °C (based on 1404 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00087 (0.00033 - 0.00227), b=3.07 (2.84 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .